After malaria and tuberculosis, in India, sexually transmitted diseases are considered as the third most dangerous affliction in the country. Sexually transmitted diseases refer to a medical condition passed through one individual to others, by unprotected sexual contact. A study conducted during 2002-03 by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has shown that 6% of the adult population in India has sexually transmitted disease symptoms. And this has been increasing year by year. Let’s understand what is Indian sexually transmitted disease?
What is a Sexually Transmitted Disease?
Sexually Transmitted Disease is an infection spread through sexual contact, caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. One can get STD infection by having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone who has the STD.
STD is also known as Sexually transmitted infection (STI) or Venereal disease (VD). But the sexually transmitted disease’s symptoms are different in men and women.
Indian Sexually Transmitted Diseases Symptoms
Let’s discuss the sexually transmitted disease’s symptoms in men and women:
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Symptoms In Men
In some cases, it is possible to develop STD without any specific symptoms. But generally, STD causes some obvious symptoms. For men, the sexually transmitted disease’s symptoms are:
- Pain or discomfort during sex or urination
- Unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis
- Sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
- Painful or swollen testicles
Read about HIV Symptoms in Men and Their Prevention
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Symptoms In Women
Similar to men, women can also get infected by STD. The symptoms of an STD in women are:
- Pain or discomfort during sex or urination
- Unusual discharge or bleeding from the vagina
- Sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the vagina, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
- Itchiness in or around the vagina
Types of STI
There are different types of infections that can be transmitted sexually. The most common STIs are described below:
Chlamydia is caused by a certain type of bacteria. This is one of the most commonly reported STD. Many Chlamydia patients do not feel noticeable symptoms. But a few Chlamydia patient can experience-
- pain or discomfort during sex or urination
- green or yellow discharge from the penis or vagina
- pain in the lower abdomen
If this condition is left untreated, it may lead to infections of the urethra, prostate gland or testicles, pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility. If a pregnant woman has Chlamydia and is not taking any treatment, she can pass the disease to the baby.
HPV (human papillomavirus)
HPV is a kind of virus that can spread from one person to another through sexual contact. There are many strains of this virus. Some are serious but some are less dangerous compared to others. One common symptom of this infection is warts on the genitals, mouth or throat. The strains of HPV infection can lead to different kinds of cancers, such as oral cancer, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer and rectal cancer.
Also, read about: Sexually active? You need to know about this Silent Virus – HPV
Another bacterial infection is Syphilis which goes unnoticed at its early stage. The initial symptom that appears is a small round sore known as a chancre. It can develop on your genitals, anus or mouth. It’s painless but very infectious. Later symptoms of this condition are rashes, fatigue, fever, headache and joint pain.
If left untreated, it can lead to loss of vision, loss of hearing, loss of memory, mental illness or maybe death.
HIV is a very common type of STD that can damage your immune system and increase the risk of contracting other viruses or bacteria and certain cancers. The patient with HIV should get effective treatment because it can lead to stage 3 HIV, known as AIDs. The symptoms of HIV and flu are quite similar – like fever, chills, aches, pain, swollen lymph nodes and sore throat.
Similar to the above STDs, there are many other STDs such as Herpes, Trichomoniasis and Pubic lice. Other less common STDs are Chancroid, Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Granuloma Inguinale, Molluscum Contagiosum and Scabies.
There are a few STDs that can be cured with different medicines and vaccinations. These include:
On the other hand, some of the STDs that can not be cured are HPV, HIV and Herpes.
In India, so many people are suffering from Sexually transmitted diseases. If you look at the numbers, it’s high. The main reason behind this is the lack of awareness and communication. People are not ready to talk about it, even after they come to know that he/she is suffering from some sexually transmitted disease. This attitude is not a positive one.
Individuals should inform their sex partners about such disorders so that they can get themselves checked and get the right treatment on time.
To know more about STD’s read our article STDs: More common than you think